Estimated reading time: 22 minutes
Table of contents
- Christians and Conspiracy Theories
- 1 in 4 White Evangelicals swayed by QAnon conspiracy theories
- How QAnon uses religion to lure unsuspecting Christians
- Christians who believe in conspiracy theories are on thorny ground
- “Foolish and stupid arguments”
- Deceitful spirits and the teachings of demons
- Do not gossip
- Whatever is true
- Research Resources on Conspiracy Theories
Christians and Conspiracy Theories
Many people who consider themselves Christians — and thus could be expect to know a thing or two about truth — believe in various conspiracy theories and other hoaxes.
That’s right: while they ‘follow’ Jesus — who said he is the way, the truth, and the life (John 14:6) — they prefer to spread myths.
Some conspiracy theories are relatively harmless (e.g. the Well into Hell hoax, or the belief that moon landing was faked). But others are a downright dangerous. For instance, many self-proclaimed Christians were involved in the January 6, 2021 attack on the United States Capitol. Having put their trust and faith in the decidedly unchristlike Donald Trump, they engaged in outright terrorism.
Some of the rioters carried American flags, Confederate battle flags, or Nazi emblems. For the first time in U.S. history, a Confederate battle flag was displayed inside the Capitol. Christian imagery and rhetoric was prevalent. Rioters carried crosses and signs saying, “Jesus Saves”, and “Jesus 2020”. On the National Mall, rioters chanted, “Christ is king”. One rioter carried a Christian flag. Rioters referred to the neo-fascist Proud Boys as “God’s warriors”. These were mainly neo-charismatic, prophetic Christians who believed that Trump was prophesied to remain in power and anointed by God to save Christian Americans from religious persecution.
Although a few evangelical leaders supported the riots, most condemned the violence and criticized Trump for inciting the crowd. This criticism came from liberal Christian groups such as the Red-Letter Christians, as well as evangelical groups who were generally supportive of Trump. This criticism did not affect evangelical support for Trump; investigative journalist Sarah Posner, author of Unholy: Why White Evangelicals Worship at the Altar of Donald Trump, argued that many white evangelical Christians in the U.S. create an echo chamber whereby Trump’s missteps are blamed on the Democratic Party, leftists, or the mainstream media, the last of which being viewed as especially untrustworthy.[25
1 in 4 White Evangelicals swayed by QAnon conspiracy theories
As reported by Religion News Service, and published in Christianity Today, a survey by the conservative American Enterprise Institute, reported 29 percent of Republicans and 27 percent of white evangelicals—the most of any religious group—believe the widely debunked QAnon conspiracy theory is completely or mostly accurate. 1
“QAnon Conspiracies Sway Faith Groups, Including 1 in 4 White Evangelicals,” the magazine headlined.
According to Daniel Cox, director of AEI’s Survey Center on American Life, the report suggests conspiracy theories enjoy a surprising amount of support in general, but white evangelicals appear to be particularly primed to embrace them.
“There’s this really dramatic fissure,” he said.
Asked to explain why white evangelicals appear disproportionately likely to embrace conspiracy theories, Cox noted that, as a group, they do not fit a stereotype of conspiracy theorists as people disconnected from social interaction. Instead, most retain strong connections to various social groups.
But white evangelicals stand out in a different way: The vast majority say some or a lot of their family members (81%) or friends (82%) voted for Trump in the 2020 election—more than any other religious group.
“People who do strongly believe in these things are not more disconnected—they are more politically segregated,” Cox said.
The resulting social echo chamber, he argued, allows conspiracy theories to spread unchecked.
“That kind of environment is really important when it comes to embracing this kind of thinking,” he said. “You’re seeing people embrace this sort of conspiratorial thinking, and everyone in their social circle is like, ‘Yeah, that sounds right to me,’ versus someone saying, ‘You know, we should look at this credulously.’”
White evangelicals express robust support for other conspiracy theories as well. Close to two-thirds (62%) believe there was widespread voter fraud in the 2020 election—despite numerous experts and courts at all levels refuting such claims—and roughly the same percentage (63%) believe President Joe Biden’s victory was “not legitimate.”
A majority (55%) also said they believed it was mostly or completely accurate to say “a group of unelected government officials in Washington, D.C., referred to as the ‘Deep State’ (has) been working to undermine the Trump administration.”
How QAnon uses religion to lure unsuspecting Christians
Four months before the attack CNN described, “How QAnon uses religion to lure unsuspecting Christians”
Although QAnon’s conspiracy theories are baseless — they allege that a famous actor is a secret sex trafficker and a leading Democrat participated in Satanic rituals — the dangers the movement poses are very real.
The FBI has called QAnon a domestic terror threat and an internal FBI memo warned that “fringe conspiracy theories very likely motivate some domestic extremists, wholly or in part, to commit criminal and sometimes violent activity.”
Facebook finally pledged to ban QAnon content earlier this month. And YouTube announced Thursday that it is “removing more conspiracy theory content used to justify real-world violence,” including QAnon videos.
Still, some Christian conservatives are falling for QAnon’s unhinged conspiracies.
“Right now QAnon is still on the fringes of evangelicalism,” said Ed Stetzer, an evangelical pastor and dean at Wheaton College in Illinois who wrote a recent column warning Christians about QAnon. “But we have a pretty big fringe.
“Pastors need to be more aware of the danger and they need tools to address it,” he told CNN. “People are being misled by social media.”
Some Christian pastors are actually leading their followers to QAnon, or at least introducing them to its dubious conspiracy theories.
To cite a few examples:
During services in July, Rock Urban Church in Grandville, Michigan, played a discredited video that supports QAnon conspiracy theories. “The country is being torn apart by the biggest political hoax and coordinated mass media disinformation campaign in living history — you may know it as COVID-19,” the video says. The church did not answer requests for comment and has removed the video from its YouTube channel.
Danny Silk, a leader at Bethel Church, a Pentecostal megachurch in Redding, California, has posted QAnon-related ideas and hashtags on his Instagram account. Silk did not respond to requests for comment.
Pastor John MacArthur of California, an influential evangelical who is battling county officials over the right to continue indoor services at his Grace Community Church, espoused a theme popular in QAnon circles when he misinterpreted CDC data and informed his congregation that “there is no pandemic.” MacArthur declined CNN’s request for comment.
There’s even a movement, led by the Indiana-based Omega Kingdom Ministry, to merge QAnon and Christianity — with texts from both the Bible and Q read at church services.
Christians who believe in conspiracy theories are on thorny ground
Professing Christians who believe these theories are on the dangerous thorny ground Jesus described in Matthew 13:22, where, as William Hendriksen puts it, “Constant anxiety about worldly affairs fill mind and heart with dark foreboding.” Instead of being eager to maintain the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace through humility, gentleness, patience, and love (Eph. 4:2–3), they produce the works of the flesh, fostering dissensions and divisions that cause believers to take sides, argue, and fight with one another (Gal. 5:20). When things reach this point, the Devil has succeeded in using his age-old tools of deception and division to disrupt the church, and it underscores Peter’s caution that “whatever overcomes a person, to that he is enslaved” (2 Pet. 2:19, ESV throughout).
How do conspiracy theories begin? Some originate from the noetic effects of sin—flawed thinking. But others originate with “the god of this world,” who blinds “the minds of unbelievers, to keep them from seeing the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ” (2 Cor. 4:4). The Devil’s lies and deception began with Adam and Eve, and conspiracy theories were widespread as far back as Isaiah’s day (Isa. 8:11–13).
In the New Testament, Jesus warned his followers concerning his second coming: “See that no one leads you astray” (Matt. 24:4; Mark 13:5). Paul urged believers to “Let no one deceive you with empty words” (Eph. 5:6) and “Let no one deceive you in any way” (2 Thess. 2:3). John says, “Little children, let no one deceive you” (1 John. 3:7).
“Foolish and stupid arguments”
Conspiracy theory believers claim to be privy to impossible knowledge, such as the doings of secret world governments and other cabals. These armchair detectives confidently state — without any proof whatsoever — that the FBI, the media, Interpol, the Illuminati, and, say, a pizza restaurant are all involved in crimes, cover-ups, and attempts to take over the world. Facts do not matter to them.
Millions(!) of American crackpots, including many who proclaim to be Christians, believed that the 2020 election was stolen from Donald Trump. To them, facts mean nothing. They prefer myths over verifiable information.
The apostle Paul told Timothy, who at time time headed the church in Ephesus, to “instruct certain people not to teach different doctrine or to pay attention to myths and endless genealogies. These promote empty speculations rather than God’s plan, which operates by faith.” (1 Timothy 1:3,4 HCSB)
One of the dictionary definitions of a myth is “a widely held but false belief or idea.”
Paul also urged Timothy to having nothing to do with “foolish and ignorant disputes” (2 Timothy 2:23, HCSB). The New International Version puts it this way: “Don’t have anything to do with foolish and stupid arguments, because you know they produce quarrels.”
When you seriously examine today’s conspiracy theories you discover they are not based on, or supported by facts. They are myths — foolish and stupid ideas.
Nowadays, many pastors, Christian leaders, and others who profess to be Christians misuse the Bible to promote false rumors. Some even claim that God gave them special insight or revelation regarding these matters.
Unfortunately, countless Christians are sorely lacking in spiritual discernment. That means they lack the tools needed to examine whatever they are being taught. Thus they are easy prey for false teachers.
And this is what he told the Philippians:
… whatever is true, whatever is honorable, whatever is just, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is commendable—if there is any moral excellence and if there is any praise—dwell on these things. 9 Do what you have learned and received and heard and seen in me, and the God of peace will be with you.
Deceitful spirits and the teachings of demons
The troublesome result of a lack of discernment, is seen in this heads-up Paul gave Timothy:
Now the Spirit explicitly says that in later times some will depart from the faith, paying attention to deceitful spirits and the teachings of demons, 2 through the hypocrisy of liars whose consciences are seared.
People who abandon the faith are known as apostates. Instead of being led by the Holy Spirit, they pay attention to deceiving spirits and the teachings of demons (evil spirits who are led by the devil).
Now, the context shows that Paul was referring to events that evidently took place during his lifetime. In his letter he is warning Timothy against an early form of gnosticism — through which many heresies were introduced into the church.
But false teachers and false teachings have plagued Christians since the days of Jesus. In the book of Acts. Luke quotes Paul as saying,
I know that after my departure savage wolves will come in among you, not sparing the flock. And men will rise up from your own number with deviant doctrines to lure the disciples into following them. Therefore be on the alert, remembering that night and day for three years I did not stop warning each one of you with tears.
Do not gossip
Throughout the New Testament, the apostles warn against various heresies, deceptive philosophies, and even “foolish and stupid arguments.”
The Bible also repeatedly warns against gossip. The dictionary defines gossip as “casual or unconstrained conversation or reports about other people, typically involving details that are not confirmed as being true.” It is also described as “idle talk or rumor.” Gossip is not just confined to tattling about others, but also pertains to events and issues.
In the Bible, the sin of gossip is in bad company. For instance, Paul tells the Corinthians, “For I fear that perhaps when I come I will not find you to be what I want, and I may not be found by you to be what you want; there may be quarreling, jealousy, outbursts of anger, selfish ambitions, slander, gossip, arrogance, and disorder.” (2 Corinthians 12:20 HCSB)
And in talking to the Romans about gentiles, he says, “because they did not think it worthwhile to acknowledge God, God delivered them over to a worthless mind to do what is morally wrong. They are filled with all unrighteousness, evil, greed, and wickedness. They are full of envy, murder, quarrels, deceit, and malice. They are gossips, slanderers, God-haters, arrogant, proud, boastful, inventors of evil, disobedient to parents, undiscerning, untrustworthy, unloving, and unmerciful. Although they know full well God’s just sentence—that those who practice such things deserve to die—they not only do them, but even applaud others who practice them.” (Romans 1:28-32 HCSB)
Then what are we to think of people who claim to be Christians, but engage in gossip by spreading conspiracy theories about people, events, and issues? The lies they spread certainly marks them as untrustworthy and undiscerning.
Consider this: how do you expect people to trust your testimony regarding Jesus Christ if you engage in gossip, spreading lies?
Whatever is true
Paul encouraged the Philippians as follows:
Rejoice in the Lord always. I will say it again: Rejoice! Let your gentleness be evident to all. The Lord is near. Do not be anxious about anything, but in every situation, by prayer and petition, with thanksgiving, present your requests to God. And the peace of God, which transcends all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus.
Finally brothers and sisters, whatever is true, whatever is honorable, whatever is just, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is commendable—if there is any moral excellence and if there is any praise—dwell on these things. Do what you have learned and received and heard and seen in me, and the God of peace will be with you.
If you are someone who has bought into conspiracy theories, ask yourself whether your current state of mind matches what Paul, inspired by the Holy Spirit, wrote.
Read Next: Discernment
Research Resources on Conspiracy Theories
More resources will be added over time.
Books about conspiracy theories
■ A Lot of People Are Saying: The New Conspiracism and the Assault on Democracy, by Russell Muirhead and Nancy L. Rosenblum
Conspiracy theories are as old as politics. But conspiracists today have introduced something new―conspiracy without theory. And the new conspiracism has moved from the fringes to the heart of government with the election of Donald Trump.
In A Lot of People Are Saying, Russell Muirhead and Nancy Rosenblum show how the new conspiracism differs from classic conspiracy theory, how it undermines democracy, and what needs to be done to resist it.
■ The Psychology of Conspiracy Theories, by Jan-Willem van Prooijen, an Associate Professor of Social and Organizational Psychology at VU Amsterdam, and Senior Researcher at the Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement.
The Psychology of Conspiracy Theories debunks the myth that conspiracy theories are a modern phenomenon, exploring their broad social contexts, from politics to the workplace. The book explains why some people are more susceptible to these beliefs than others and how they are produced by recognizable and predictable psychological processes.
Featuring examples such as the 9/11 terrorist attacks and climate change, The Psychology of Conspiracy Theories shows us that while such beliefs are not always irrational and are not a pathological trait, they can be harmful to individuals and society.
■ Secrets, Plots & Hidden Agendas: What You Don’t Know About Conspiracy Theories, by Paul T. Coughlin. A dated book (published in Feb. 1999). But, as one reviewer points out, “However, he still gives a lot of useful information about conspiracy theories in general and Christian theories in particular, and the misuse of end-times prophecy to justify highly questionable if not downright ugly.” Coughlin is the Founder & President of The Protectors, an international, freedom-from-bullying organization. He’s an international speaker and teacher. Coughlin has authored a number of books, including “No More Christian Nice Guy: When Being Nice —Instead of Good — Hurts Men, Women and Children“
Were the government actions at Ruby Ridge and Waco “planned executions?” Has the national debt been deliberately increased to give international bankers control over the country? Is there a secret organization of top political, economic, military, and religious leaders whose goal is to control the entire planet? The people who answer “yes” to such questions are not just extremists; they number in the millions, wear suits, and pay their taxes.
News of conspiracies has spread broadly by the Internet, by declassified government reports, by prominent leaders who publicly favor global government, and by interpretations of Bible prophecy. But what is the truth? In this book, Paul Coughlin uncovers the facts about prevalent conspiracy theories and discusses the reasons that so many people believe them to be true.
■ The 13 Best Conspiracy Theory Podcasts for Every Kind of Skeptic, [Archive.Today] Daisy Hernandez, Popular Mechanics, July 27, 2022.
Books — Online
■ The Conspiracy Theory Handbook [PDF] Conspiracy theories attempt to explain events as the secretive plots of powerful people. While conspiracy theories are not typically supported by evidence, this doesn’t stop them from blossoming. Conspiracy theories damage society in a number of ways. To help minimize these harmful effects, The Conspiracy Theory Handbook, by Stephan Lewandowsky and John Cook, explains why conspiracy theories are so popular, how to identify the traits of conspiratorial thinking, and what are effective response strategies.
Conspiracy theories attempt to explain events as the secretive plots of powerful people. While conspiracy theories are not typically supported by evidence, this doesn’t stop them from blossoming. Conspiracy theories damage society in a number of ways. To help minimise these harmful effects, The Conspiracy Theory Handbook explains why conspiracy theories are so popular, how to identify the traits of conspiratorial thinking, and what are effective response strategies.
The authors identify “seven traits of conspiratorial thinking, summarized (and more easily remembered) with the acronym CONSPIR:
- Overriding Suspicion
- Nefarious Intent
- Something Must Be Wrong
- Persecuted Victim
- Immune to Evidence
- Re-interpreting Randomness
The authors then state,
The self-sealing nature of conspiracy theories means that any evidence disproving a theory may be interpreted as further evidence for the conspiracy. This means that communication efforts need to clearly differentiate between different target audiences. If conspiracy theorists re-interpret evidence to mean the opposite, then they require a different strategy to those who value evidence. The following pages look first at communication strategies for the general public, then for conspiracy theorists specifically.
Excellent material. Download The Conspiracy Theory Handbook for free.
Videos about Conspiracy Theories
■ The Psychology behind conspiracy theories, BBC, July 12, 2022
We look into the psychology behind conspiracy theories to try to understand why certain people are more easily drawn into them and what effect they have on our brains.
■ Why conspiracy theories are so hard to challenge, BBC, July 25, 2022
As conspiracy theories have evolved over the years, they have become a reflection of what’s relevant in our society.
Social media has had a huge role to play in facilitating the spread of conspiracy theories in the modern age, and as such they are becoming harder to combat. But what happens in our brains when our strongly held beliefs are challenged and how can we change our mindset to protect ourselves from conspiracy theories?
About this post
This article is posted by Anton and Janet Hein. It has been resurrected (and greatly expanded) from a very old post that was first published on May 3, 1997. More research resources are added from time to time.
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