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Examining the "Toronto Blessing" - Appendix 2
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The "Toronto Blessing"

A Theological Examination of the Roots, Teaching and Manifestations, and Connection Between the Faith Movement and the Vineyard Church

By Stephen Sizer


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Appendix 2: What does the Bible teach about manifestations associated with the "Toronto Blessing?"

1. References to "Laugh" and "Laughter" in Scripture

  • GEN 18:13,15 Then the LORD said to Abraham, "Why did Sarah laugh and say, 'Will I really have a child, now that I am old?'.....Sarah was afraid, so she lied and said, "I did not laugh." But he said, "Yes, you did laugh."

  • GEN 21:6 Sarah said, "God has brought me laughter, and everyone who hears about this will laugh with me."

  • JOB 5:22 You will laugh at destruction and famine, and need not fear the beasts of the earth.

  • JOB 8:21 He will yet fill your mouth with laughter and your lips with shouts of joy.

  • PSA 52:6 The righteous will see and fear; they will laugh at him, saying,

  • PSA 59:8 But you, O LORD, laugh at them; you scoff at all those nations.

  • PSA 126:2 Our mouths were filled with laughter, our tongues with songs of joy. Then it was said among the nations, "The LORD has done great things for them."

  • PRO 1:26 I in turn will laugh at your disaster; I will mock when calamity overtakes you -

  • PRO 14:13 Even in laughter the heart may ache, and joy may end in grief.

  • PRO 31:25 She is clothed with strength and dignity; she can laugh at the days to come.

  • ECC 2:2 "Laughter," I said, "is foolish. And what does pleasure accomplish?"

  • ECC 3:4 A time to weep and a time to laugh, a time to mourn and a time to dance,

  • ECC 7:3 Sorrow is better than laughter, because a sad face is good for the heart.

  • ECC 7:6 Like the crackling of thorns under the pot, so is the laughter of fools. This too is meaningless.

  • ECC 10:19 A feast is made for laughter, and wine makes life merry, but money is the answer for everything.

  • JER 51:39 But while they are aroused, I will set out a feast for them and make them drunk, so that they shout with laughter - then sleep forever and not awake," declares the LORD.

  • HAB 1:10 They deride kings and scoff at rulers. They laugh at all fortified cities; they build earthen ramps and capture them.

  • LUK 6:21 Blessed are you who hunger now, for you will be satisfied. Blessed are you who weep now, for you will laugh.

  • LUK 6:25 Woe to you who are well fed now, for you will go hungry. Woe to you who laugh now, for you will mourn and weep.

  • JAM 4:9 Grieve, mourn and wail. Change your laughter to mourning and your joy to gloom.


There is no sense in which these passages (apart from one verse in Psalm 126) could explain or justify the current phenomenon of congregational laughing, which is supposedly a sign of God's presence and blessing. Many references in fact have to do with derision or scorn. Nor is it true that laughter is synonymous with joy (Prov 14:13). The NT does not teach that we should act in this way - just the opposite (James 4:9).

2. References to "Roar," "Roared" & "Roaring" in the context of a "Lion."

  • JOB 4:10 The lions may roar and growl, yet the teeth of the great lions are broken.

  • NUM 23:24 The people rise like a lioness; they rouse themselves like a lion that does not rest till he devours his prey and drinks the blood of his victims."

  • NUM 24:9 Like a lion they crouch and lie down, like a lioness - who dares to rouse them? "May those who bless you be blessed and those who curse you be cursed!"

  • JOB 10:16 If I hold my head high, you stalk me like a lion and again display your awesome power against me.

  • JOB 37:2,4 Listen! Listen to the roar of his voice, to the rumbling that comes from his mouth. After that comes the sound of his roar; he thunders with his majestic voice. When his voice resounds, he holds nothing back.

  • PSA 10:9 He lies in wait like a lion in cover; he lies in wait to catch the helpless; he catches the helpless and drags them off in his net.

  • PSA 22:13 Roaring lions tearing their prey open their mouths wide against me.

  • PSA 104:21 The lions roar for their prey and seek their food from God.

  • PRO 19:12 A king's rage is like the roar of a lion, but his favor is like dew on the grass.

  • PRO 20:2 A king's wrath is like the roar of a lion; he who angers him forfeits his life.

  • PRO 28:15 Like a roaring lion or a charging bear is a wicked man ruling over a helpless people.

  • ISA 5:29 Their roar is like that of the lion, they roar like young lions; they growl as they seize their prey and carry it off with no one to rescue.

  • ISA 31:4 This is what the LORD says to me: "As a lion growls, a great lion over his prey - and though a whole band of shepherds is called together against him, he is not frightened by their shouts or disturbed by their clamor - so the LORD Almighty will come down to do battle on Mount Zion and on its heights.

  • JER 2:30 "In vain I punished your people; they did not respond to correction. Your sword has devoured your prophets like a ravening lion.

  • JER 12:8 My inheritance has become to me like a lion in the forest. She roars at me; therefore I hate her.

  • JER 25:30 "Now prophesy all these words against them and say to them: "'The LORD will roar from on high; he will thunder from his holy dwelling and roar mightily against his land. He will shout like those who tread the grapes, shout against all who live on the earth.

  • JER 25:38 Like a lion he will leave his lair, and their land will become desolate because of the sword of the oppressor and because of the LORD'S fierce anger.

  • JER 49:19 "Like a lion coming up from Jordan's thickets to a rich pastureland, I will chase Edom from its land in an instant. Who is the chosen one I will appoint for this? Who is like me and who can challenge me? And what shepherd can stand against me?"

  • JER 50:44 Like a lion coming up from Jordan's thickets to a rich pastureland, I will chase Babylon from its land in an instant. Who is the chosen one I will appoint for this? Who is like me and who can challenge me? And what shepherd can stand against me?

  • JER 51:38,58 (Babylon) Her people all roar like young lions, they growl like lion cubs.....The LORD will destroy Babylon; he will silence her noisy din. Waves [of enemies] will rage like great waters; the roar of their voices will resound.

  • EZE 19:7,9 He broke down their strongholds and devastated their towns. The land and all who were in it were terrified by his roaring....With hooks they pulled him into a cage and brought him to the king of Babylon. They put him in prison, so his roar was heard no longer on the mountains of Israel.

  • EZE 22:25 There is a conspiracy of her princes within her like a roaring lion tearing its prey; they devour people, take treasures and precious things and make many widows within her.

  • HOS 11:10 They will follow the LORD; he will roar like a lion. When he roars, his children will come trembling from the west.

  • HOS 13:7 So I will come upon them like a lion, like a leopard I will lurk by the path.

  • HOS 13:8 Like a bear robbed of her cubs, I will attack them and rip them open. Like a lion I will devour them; a wild animal will tear them apart.

  • JOE 3:16 The LORD will roar from Zion and thunder from Jerusalem; the earth and the sky will tremble. But the LORD will be a refuge for his people, a stronghold for the people of Israel.

  • AMO 3:4,8 Does a lion roar in the thicket when he has no prey? Does he growl in his den when he has caught nothing?....The lion has roared - who will not fear? The Sovereign LORD has spoken - who can but prophesy?

  • ZEP 3:3 Her officials are roaring lions, her rulers are evening wolves, who leave nothing for the morning.

  • ZEC 9:15 And the LORD Almighty will shield them. They will destroy and overcome with slingstones. They will drink and roar as with wine; they will be full like a bowl used for sprinkling the corners of the altar.

  • ZEC 11:3 Listen to the wail of the shepherds; their rich pastures are destroyed! Listen to the roar of the lions; the lush thicket of the Jordan is ruined!

  • 1 PE 5:8 Be self-controlled and alert. Your enemy the devil prowls around like a roaring lion looking for someone to devour.

  • REV 10:3 And he gave a loud shout like the roar of a lion. When he shouted, the voices of the seven thunders spoke.


References to "roaring" describe the presence of evil or of destruction and when applied to the Lord refer to His impending judgement of sin. They most certainly do not speak of God's blessing.

How Christians can justify such phenomena, supposedly as evidence of the presence and blessing of the Holy Spirit - in flagrant disregard for what the Scriptures do teach - is most worrying.

This is particularly so in the light of what the Holy Spirit warns us about in 1 Peter 5:8 and Jeremiah 51.

3. References to "shaking" or "shaken" in relation to a person in Scripture

  • PSA 22:7 All who see me mock me; they hurl insults, shaking their heads:

  • 1SA 28:21 When the woman came to Saul and saw that he was greatly shaken, she said, "Look, your maidservant has obeyed you. I took my life in my hands and did what you told me to do.

  • 2 SA 18:33 The king was shaken. He went up to the room over the gateway and wept. As he went, he said: "O my son Absalom! My son, my son Absalom! If only I had died instead of you - O Absalom, my son, my son!"

  • NEH 5:13 I also shook out the folds of my robe and said, "In this way may God shake out of his house and possessions every man who does not keep this promise. So may such a man be shaken out and emptied!" At this the whole assembly said, "Amen," and praised the LORD. And the people did as they had promised.

  • JOB 34:20 They die in an instant, in the middle of the night; the people are shaken and they pass away; the mighty are removed without human hand.

  • PSA 15:5 Who lends his money without usury and does not accept a bribe against the innocent. He who does these things will never be shaken.

  • PSA 16:8 I have set the LORD always before me. Because he is at my right hand, I will not be shaken.

  • PSA 21:7 For the king trusts in the LORD; through the unfailing love of the Most High he will not be shaken.

  • PSA 30:6 When I felt secure, I said, "I will never be shaken."

  • PSA 109:23 I fade away like an evening shadow; I am shaken off like a locust.

  • ISA 7:2 Now the house of David was told, "Aram has allied itself with Ephraim"; so the hearts of Ahaz and his people were shaken, as the trees of the forest are shaken by the wind.

  • MAT 27:39 Those who passed by hurled insults at him, shaking their heads

  • MAR 15:29 Those who passed by hurled insults at him, shaking their heads and saying, "So! You who are going to destroy the temple and build it in three days,

  • ACT 2:25 David said about him: "'I saw the Lord always before me. Because he is at my right hand, I will not be shaken.

  • ACT 4:31 After they prayed, the place where they were meeting was shaken. And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and spoke the word of God boldly.

  • ACT 16:26 Suddenly there was such a violent earthquake that the foundations of the prison were shaken. At once all the prison doors flew open, and everybody's chains came loose.

  • HEB 12:27-28 The words "once more" indicate the removing of what can be shaken - that is, created things - so that what cannot be shaken may remain. Therefore, since we are receiving a kingdom that cannot be shaken, let us be thankful, and so worship God acceptably with reverence and awe.


Most references, in context, have to do with fear, terror, death, sorrow or mockery, but never blessing. There are, to the contrary, several promises which specifically say that the believer will not be shaken. The passage in Acts 4:31, so often quoted to justify this phenomena, speaks of the place not the people "shaking" and refers to an earthquake.

4. References to "tremble" and "trembling" in Scripture

  • GEN 42:28 "My silver has been returned," he said to his brothers. "Here it is in my sack." Their hearts sank and they turned to each other trembling and said, "What is this that God has done to us?"

  • EXO 15:14-15 The nations will hear and tremble; anguish will grip the people of Philistia. The chiefs of Edom will be terrified, the leaders of Moab will be seized with trembling, the people of Canaan will melt away;

  • DEU 2:25 This very day I will begin to put the terror and fear of you on all the nations under heaven. They will hear reports of you and will tremble and be in anguish because of you."

  • 2 SA 22:46 They all lose heart; they come trembling from their strongholds.

  • 1 CH 16:30 Tremble before him, all the earth! The world is firmly established; it cannot be moved.

  • JOB 4:14 Fear and trembling seized me and made all my bones shake.

  • JOB 9:6 He shakes the earth from its place and makes its pillars tremble.

  • JOB 21:6 When I think about this, I am terrified; trembling seizes my body.

  • PSA 2:11 Serve the LORD with fear and rejoice with trembling.

  • PSA 18:45 They all lose heart; they come trembling from their strongholds.

  • PSA 48:6 Trembling seized them there, pain like that of a woman in labour.

  • PSA 55:5 Fear and trembling have beset me; horror has overwhelmed me.

  • PSA 96:9 Worship the LORD in the splendour of his holiness; tremble before him, all the earth.

  • PSA 99:1 The LORD reigns, let the nations tremble; he sits enthroned between the cherubim, let the earth shake.

  • PSA 114:7 Tremble, O earth, at the presence of the Lord, at the presence of the God of Jacob,

  • ECC 12:3 When the keepers of the house tremble, and the strong men stoop, when the grinders cease because they are few, and those looking through the windows grow dim;

  • ISA 19:1 An oracle concerning Egypt: See, the LORD rides on a swift cloud and is coming to Egypt. The idols of Egypt tremble before him, and the hearts of the Egyptians melt within them.

  • ISA 21:4 My heart falters, fear makes me tremble; the twilight I longed for has become a horror to me.

  • ISA 23:11 The LORD has stretched out his hand over the sea and made its kingdoms tremble. He has given an order concerning Phoenicia that her fortresses be destroyed.

  • ISA 32:10-11 In little more than a year you who feel secure will tremble; the grape harvest will fail, and the harvest of fruit will not come. Tremble, you complacent women; shudder, you daughters who feel secure! Strip off your clothes, put sackcloth around your waists.

  • ISA 33:14 The sinners in Zion are terrified; trembling grips the godless: "Who of us can dwell with the consuming fire? Who of us can dwell with everlasting burning?"

  • ISA 41:5 The islands have seen it and fear; the ends of the earth tremble.

  • ISA 44:8 Do not tremble, do not be afraid. Did I not proclaim this and foretell it long ago? You are my witnesses. Is there any God besides me? No, there is no other Rock; I know not one."

  • ISA 66:5 Hear the word of the LORD, you who tremble at his word: "Your brothers who hate you, and exclude you because of my name, have said, 'Let the LORD be glorified, that we may see your joy!' Yet they will be put to shame.

  • JER 5:22 Should you not fear me?" declares the LORD. "Should you not tremble in my presence? I made the sand a boundary for the sea, an everlasting barrier it cannot cross. The waves may roll, but they cannot prevail; they may roar, but they cannot cross it.

  • JER 23:9 Concerning the prophets: My heart is broken within me; all my bones tremble. I am like a drunken man, like a man overcome by wine, because of the LORD and his holy words.

  • JER 33:9 Then this city will bring me renown, joy, praise and honour before all nations on earth that hear of all the good things I do for it; and they will be in awe and will tremble at the abundant prosperity and peace I provide for it.'

  • EZE 12:18 "Son of man, tremble as you eat your food, and shudder in fear as you drink your water.

  • EZE 26:16 Then all the princes of the coast will step down from their thrones and lay aside their robes and take off their embroidered garments. Clothed with terror, they will sit on the ground, trembling every moment, appalled at you.

  • EZE 32:10 I will cause many peoples to be appalled at you, and their kings will shudder with horror because of you when I brandish my sword before them. On the day of your downfall each of them will tremble every moment for his life.

  • DAN 10:10 A hand touched me and set me trembling on my hands and knees.

  • DAN 10:11 He said, "Daniel, you who are highly esteemed, consider carefully the words I am about to speak to you, and stand up, for I have now been sent to you." And when he said this to me, I stood up trembling.

  • AMO 3:6 When a trumpet sounds in a city, do not the people tremble? When disaster comes to a city, has not the LORD caused it?

  • AMO 8:8 "Will not the land tremble for this, and all who live in it mourn? The whole land will rise like the Nile; it will be stirred up and then sink like the river of Egypt.

  • HOS 3:5 Afterward the Israelites will return and seek the LORD their God and David their king. They will come trembling to the LORD and to his blessings in the last days.

  • HOS 11:10 They will follow the LORD; he will roar like a lion. When he roars, his children will come trembling from the west.

  • MIC 7:17 They will lick dust like a snake, like creatures that crawl on the ground. They will come trembling out of their dens; they will turn in fear to the LORD our God and will be afraid of you.

  • NAH 2:10 She is pillaged, plundered, stripped! Hearts melt, knees give way, bodies tremble, every face grows pale.

  • HAB 2:7 Will not your debtors suddenly arise? Will they not wake up and make you tremble? Then you will become their victim.

  • HAB 3:6 He stood, and shook the earth; he looked, and made the nations tremble. The ancient mountains crumbled and the age-old hills collapsed. His ways are eternal.

  • MAR 5:33 Then the woman, knowing what had happened to her, came and fell at his feet and, trembling with fear, told him the whole truth.

  • MAR 16:8 Trembling and bewildered, the women went out and fled from the tomb. They said nothing to anyone, because they were afraid.

  • LUK 8:47 Then the woman, seeing that she could not go unnoticed, came trembling and fell at his feet. In the presence of all the people, she told why she had touched him and how she had been instantly healed.

  • ACT 16:29 The jailer called for lights, rushed in and fell trembling before Paul and Silas.

  • 1 CO 2:3 I came to you in weakness and fear, and with much trembling.

  • 2 CO 7:15 And his affection for you is all the greater when he remembers that you were all obedient, receiving him with fear and trembling.

  • PHI 2:12 Therefore, my dear friends, as you have always obeyed - not only in my presence, but now much more in my absence - continue to work out your salvation with fear and trembling,

  • HEB 12:21 The sight was so terrifying that Moses said, "I am trembling with fear."


It is more usual to take the term "trembling" as a metaphorical description, as for example, "in fear and trembling." This is describing an inner feeling not necessarily an outward manifestation such as "shaking." (e.g 1 Corinthians 2:3).

Most of the references to "tremble" or "trembling" have to do with great fear, terror, or guilt associated with impending calamity or with God's imminent presence, His holiness and judgement.

Daniel 10:10 and Jeremiah 23:9 are the only references that remotely equate with this current phenomena. In both instances however, these prophets were channels of Divine revelation. Jeremiah describes how he felt as he was delivering a prophecy of judgement against lying and evil prophets. The experience of Daniel is similarly in the context of the giving of Divine revelation.

The Scriptures nowhere teach such experiences as normative, least of all in the context of worship. Psalm 2:11 is a specific warning to rebellious rulers, not an aid to worship. Jeremiah 5:22 was spoken in the context of judgement.

In many passages, such as Isaiah 44:8, God specifically says "Do not tremble, do not be afraid." (see also Gen 15:1; 21:17;26:24; 46:3; Ex 14:13; 20:20; Deut 1:21; Jud 6:23; 1 Sam 12:20; Dan 10:12,19; Zec 8:15). Surely this is the pattern for those who are now "In Christ"? (Matt 28:5,10; Luke 1:13,30; 2:10; John 12:15; Rev 1:17). By the blood of the eternal covenant we now come into His presence with confidence.

"Let us draw near to God with a sincere heart in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled to cleanse us from a guilty conscience and having our bodies washed with pure water." (Hebrews 10:22)

5. References to "drunk," "drunken" and "drunkenness" in Scripture

  • DEU 32:42 I will make my arrows drunk with blood, while my sword devours flesh: the blood of the slain and the captives, the heads of the enemy leaders."

  • 1SA 1:13-14 Hannah was praying in her heart, and her lips were moving but her voice was not heard. Eli thought she was drunk And said to her, "How long will you keep on getting drunk? Get rid of your wine."

  • PSA 107:27 They reeled and staggered like drunken men; they were at their wits' end.

  • ECC 10:17 Blessed are you, O land whose king is of noble birth and whose princes eat at a proper time - for strength and not for drunkenness.

  • ISA 29:9 Be stunned and amazed, blind yourselves and be sightless; be drunk, but not from wine, stagger, but not from beer.

  • ISA 34:5 My sword has drunk its fill in the heavens; see, it descends in judgment on Edom, the people I have totally destroyed

  • ISA 49:26 I will make your oppressors eat their own flesh; they will be drunk on their own blood, as with wine. Then all mankind will know that I, the LORD, am your Saviour, your Redeemer, the Mighty One of Jacob."

  • ISA 63:6 I trampled the nations in my anger; in my wrath I made them drunk and poured their blood on the ground."

  • JER 13:13 Then tell them, 'This is what the LORD says: I am going to fill with drunkenness all who live in this land, including the kings who sit on David's throne, the priests, the prophets and all those living in Jerusalem.

  • JER 23:9 Concerning the prophets: My heart is broken within me; all my bones tremble. I am like a drunken man, like a man overcome by wine, because of the LORD and his holy words.

  • JER 25:27 "Then tell them, 'This is what the LORD Almighty, the God of Israel, says: Drink, get drunk and vomit, and fall to rise no more because of the sword I will send among you.'

  • JER 51:7 Babylon was a gold cup in the LORD'S hand; she made the whole earth drunk. The nations drank her wine; therefore they have now gone mad.

  • EZE 23:33 You will be filled with drunkenness and sorrow, the cup of ruin and desolation, the cup of your sister Samaria.

  • ZEC 9:15 And the LORD Almighty will shield them. They will destroy and overcome with slingstones. They will drink and roar as with wine; they will be full like a bowl used for sprinkling the corners of the altar.

  • LUK 21:34 "Be careful, or your hearts will be weighed down with dissipation, drunkenness and the anxieties of life, and that day will close on you unexpectedly like a trap.

  • ACT 2:15 These men are not drunk, as you suppose. It's only nine in the morning!

  • ROM 13:13 Let us behave decently, as in the daytime, not in orgies and drunkenness, not in sexual immorality and debauchery, not in dissension and jealousy.

  • GAL 5:21 And envy; drunkenness, orgies, and the like. I warn you, as I did before, that those who live like this will not inherit the kingdom of God.

  • EPH 5:18 Do not get drunk on wine, which leads to debauchery. Instead, be filled with the Spirit.

  • 1 TI 3:3 Not given to drunkenness, not violent but gentle, not quarrelsome, not a lover of money.

  • TIT 1:7 Since an overseer is entrusted with God's work, he must be blameless - not overbearing, not quick-tempered, not given to drunkenness, not violent, not pursuing dishonest gain.

  • 1 PE 4:3 For you have spent enough time in the past doing what pagans choose to do - living in debauchery, lust, drunkenness, orgies, carousing and detestable idolatry.

  • REV 17:6 I saw that the woman was drunk with the blood of the saints, the blood of those who bore testimony to Jesus. When I saw her, I was greatly astonished.


The majority of references are to a literal "drunkenness" and this is condemned and forbidden to believers. By implication so is the appearance of "drunkenness" (Romans 13:13).

As a metaphor, the Scriptures frequently use the term "drunk" to describe the effects of Gods wrath and impending judgement.

The only evidence Eli had that Hannah was drunk was that her lips moved but she said nothing (1 Samuel 1:13-15). It was because she was "deeply troubled" that she prayed in this way, and she strenuously refuted his criticism.

Jeremiah 23:9 is not offered as a model but was Jeremiah's experience in the context of receiving Divine revelation.

Zechariah 9:15 is describing the Second Advent (see 9:14ff)

In the celebrated instance of the Day of Pentecost, it was the eagerness to proclaim the Gospel so boldly to unbelievers that drew the accusation that they were drunk (Acts 2:15). A charge Peter was most anxious to refute.

We are commanded to behave decently (Romans 13:13) and carefully (Luke 21:34).

The "filling" of the Spirit is contrasted not compared with drunkenness. (Ephesians 5:22-23). This must surely be because one of the fruit of the Holy Spirit's presence and work is self control. (Galatians 5:22-23)

Nothing in the Scriptures substantiates the idea that believers may appear "drunk" in worship or ministry.

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