Apologetics — Research Resources: articles

This is a collection of hand-picked articles about the branch of theology known as Christian Apologetics.


  • An Approach to Christian Apologetics by Dennis McCallum, author of Christianity That Makes Sense
  • Apologetics’ Missing Links Why Christian apologetics sites on the Web have a postmodern-sized blind spot. Matt Donnelly notes that “the great majority of Christian apologetics sites overlook the issue of relativism.” Excerpt only. The full article can be accessed with a Christianity Today Library pass.

    In the final analysis, postmodern people don’t typically ask the questions that most Christian apologetics Web sites seek to answer. They don’t care about the historicity of the New Testament, “proofs” for the existence of God, young earth/old earth issues, eschatology, and so forth. This being the case, one has to ask whether Christian apologetics sites that spend a lot of time on these issues are being as helpful as they can to postmodern people—or to the Christians who wish to reach them with the gospel.

    More than anything else, Christians need to show spiritual seekers on the Web that Christianity is not a stale theological exercise, but a daily relationship with God involving mind, emotion, and mystery.

    In a famous address on Christian apologetics, C. S. Lewis said that our presentation of the Christian message “must be timeless at its heart and wear a modern dress.” He added that Christians “must translate every bit of your theology into the vernacular.” That means we must translate the Christian message into a language postmodern people can understand.

  • Anwering Objections by Greg Bahsen

    By studying the objections of unbelievers and preparing to reason with them, we take the high road of apologetics, the road of obedience to the direction of our Lord and Savior. His categorical claim was "I am the way, the truth, and the life; no one comes to the Father except through Me" (John 14:6). The apologist responds to the objections of unbelievers in a way which sets forth the objective truth of Christianity and the exclusive character of the system. He or she offers reasons for belief, vindicating the Christian worldview over against competing systems of thought and living.

    Not all believers (or professing Christians) have chosen to take that high road. It has often happened that those speaking for the Christian faith settle for much less (especially but not exclusively in the current century). They have settled for much less than apologetics by reducing Christian commitment to subjectivism. It is certainly true that Christianity brings us a sense of personal peace and confidence before God, and this inner experience of the faith being right and our own coming to be right with God (cf. the witness of the Spirit, Rom. 8:16) cannot adequately be communicated in words. However appeals to this inner feeling do not constitute an argument which should persuade others of the truth of Christianity.

  • An Apologetic for Apologetics by Craig Hawkins. Part two
  • Apologetics and Evangelism by Jimmy Williams of Probe Ministries. Also available in Spanish (La apologética y el evangelismo)
  • Apologetics in Practice by Greg Bahnsen
  • Apologetics, Truth and Humility, by Douglas Groothuis.
  • Apologetics – Who Needs It? by Dr. Craig Blomberg
  • Christian Apologetics – An Introduction, by Rick Wade of Probe Ministries
  • Common Assaults On The Gospel Described and answered. By J. Hampton Keathley III
  • Defending Your Faith "An Introduction to Apologetics", by R.C. Sproul. From the book by the same title.
  • Frequently Asked Questions About Cults, Apologetics and Christian Discernment by Rafael Martinez
  • The Need For Defending The Faith by Norman Geisler
  • Six Enemies of Apologetics Engagement by Douglas Groothuis.
  • Theistic Apologetics The three major approaches to theistic apologetics – Classical approach, the Evidentialist approach, and the Presuppositional approach – explained and critiqued. Article on the Crossroads Project site
  • When Apologetics Feels Like Mathoffsite by Sarah Abbey. Good article for those who are new to apologetics.

    For many Christians, apologetics feels a lot like math: it’s hard to understand, in an area not connected to their personality and temperament, and bringing it up with friends would be both terrifying and absurd.

    Yet just as I can’t escape using basic math on a daily basis (no matter how poorly), Christians who take their faith seriously will not be able to escape using basic apologetics.

This post was last updated: Feb. 22, 2013